Topic: Reform

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13th Amendment

The 13th Amendment to the Constitution, passed by Congress in January 1865 and ratified by the states in December of the same year, proclaimed an end to slavery...
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14th Amendment

This amendment to the Constitution, passed in 1866 and ratified in 1868, granted citizenship to those born in the United States, guaranteeing the rights of citizenship and equal...
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15th Amendment

The 15th Amendment to the Constitution was passed by Congress in 1869 and ratified by the states in 1870. It guaranteed that the right to vote would be...
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19th Amendment

This document is the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which guarantees women the right to vote. The amendment was first introduced to Congress in 1878 and it...
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Adoption of the Polish Constitution

This painting depicts the adoption of the Polish constitution of 1791, just four years after the U.S. produced the world’s first written constitution. The Polish document, which introduced...
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Benjamin Rush

This portrait of Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia was done by the American painter, Charles Willson Peale. The painting depicts Rush, who was an author, physician, statesman, and social...
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Black South Africans Vote

South African’s black majority voted for the first time in these 1994 elections. The result was the end of white minority rule. The African National Congress became the...
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Crowd During Velvet Revolution

This photograph shows demonstrators during the Velvet Revolution, Czechoslovakia’s non-violent pro-democracy movement. As the Soviet Union collapsed, Communist governments fell throughout Eastern Europe. In late 1989, peaceful protest...
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Crowd Supporting Lech Walesa

In Poland, this labor union, Solidarity, led the fight for democracy in the 1980s. Non-violent and anti-communist, Solidarity survived government repression to become a major political force. The...
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Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress

This document was issued by the First Continental Congress. In response to Parliament’s passage of the Coercive Acts, 12 of the 13 colonies sent delegates to a meeting...